Civil Law

Civil law is a portion of the law of the land which is enforced by the law Courts. As a matter of fact, it law in the strictest sense of the term.  It is sometimes called the Municipal law, as opposed to International law.

Law reflects, to a very great extent, the hopes and aspirations of the people, and hence, there cannot be either uncertainty or ignorance of law.  Every law has some pre-declared principles, which are very well known to the citizens at large.  It is because of this knowledge that laws find favor with the society.  The only difference is that law is something certain; it is more concrete than the abstract customs and habits of the people.

That it is on the whole expedient that Courts of Justice should thus become Courts of law, no one can seriously doubt. Yet, the element of evil involved in the transformation are too obvious and serious ever to right reason: they are in theory the utterance of Justice speaking to men by the mouth of state, but too often in reality, they fall short of this ideal.  Too often they turn judgment to wormwood and make the administration of justice a reproach.  Nor is this true merely of the earlier and ruder stages of legal development.  At the present day, our law has learnt, in a measure never before attained, to speak the language of sound reason and good sense, but it still retains, in no slight degree, the vices of its youth; nor is it to be expected that at any time we shall altogether escape from the perennial conflict between law and justice.  It is needful, therefore, that the law should prove the ground and justification of its existence.

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